Updating of the npuap staging system
One of the more common injuries resulting from this is pressure ulcers, or as they are called now “pressure injuries,” according to the This is more than just a change in terminology though, as it was made because it better describes the actual injury.This is because it includes not only intact, but also ulcerated skin.A comprehensive literature review was conducted on pressure ulcer prevention and treatment.A rigorous scientific methodology was used to appraise available research and make evidence-based recommendations for the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers.At this stage there may be, “intact or non-intact skin with localized area of persistent non-blanchable deep red, maroon, purple discoloration or epidermal separation revealing a dark wound bed or blood filled blister.Pain and temperature change often precede skin color changes.The injury occurs as a result of intense and/or prolonged pressure or pressure in combination with shear.
The injury can present as intact skin or an open ulcer and may be painful.Strength of recommendations indicate the extent to which one can be confident that adherence to a recommendation will do more harm than good, and are indented to assist the health professional to prioritize interventions.The guideline includes 575 explicit recommendations and/or research summaries for the following pressure ulcer topics: etiology; prevalence and incidence; risk assessment; skin and tissue assessment; preventive skin care; prophylactic dressings; microclimate control; fabrics and textiles; nutrition; repositioning and early mobilization; support surfaces; medical device related pressure ulcers; pressure ulcer classification; wound assessment; monitoring of healing; pain assessment and treatment; cleansing; debridement; wound dressings (including growth factors and biological wound dressings); assessment and treatment of infection and biofilms; biophysical agents (e.g.The intent of the collaboration is to advance international consensus in pressure ulcer prevention and management.
This guideline is the result of a collaborative effort among the NPUAP, EPUAP and PPPIA.
Draft guidelines were made available to 986 invited stakeholder individuals and organizations/societies and stakeholder feedback was considered by the guideline developers.